When you inadvertently walk close to a fire, your sensory receptors detect the sound of flames, the smell of smoke, and the feeling of heat, and instantly transmit those signals to the brain for processing. In response, the brain instantly transmits signals via the nerve network to an effector, in this case the muscles of the legs, commanding them to “run!”.
Nerves are classified into two distinct groups based on their purpose and function:
- Afferent Fibre: This connects sensory neurons to the CNS for processing.
- Efferent Fibre: After processing, motor neurons in the CNS conduct impulses to the muscles across these fibres.
A nerve fibre works by channeling electro chemical impulses (information packets) from one part of the body to another. Each impulse, or signal, travels extremely fast – as much as 120 meters per second. Transference of information across neurons occurs via a synapse which converts the electrical signal to a chemical signature and then back again.